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      熬制中藥講究多 如何正確熬制中藥?

      時間: 2019-08-12      來源: 人民網-科普中國      馬鴻飛



      很多人在喝中藥時都會選擇自己熬藥,大家普遍認為自己熬的中藥比較好,但是,大家知道應該如何正確熬中藥嗎?

      熬制中藥時在器皿選擇上就有講究,煎煮中藥以砂鍋、瓦罐為好,可以用陶器、不銹鋼器皿、玻璃器皿。忌用鐵鍋、銅鍋、鋁鍋、鉛或有害塑料制品,以免與藥物發生化學反應,影響藥效。最好選擇受熱均勻的砂鍋,這樣可以防止鍋底溫度過高導致質地較重的飲片燒糊燒焦。同時,保證鍋底干凈,煎藥前要徹底清除鍋底的殘留藥渣和油垢。

      如何正確地熬制中藥呢?煎藥火候一般先用武火,沸騰后改為文火。煎藥時間應根據藥性而定,一般藥為20~30分鐘左右。解表藥、清熱藥、芳香類藥物宜武火急煎,時間宜短,15~20分鐘即可。滋補藥先用武火煮沸后,改用文火慢煎,時間宜長,可煎40~60分鐘。

      此外,中藥材在制成飲片前經過了一系列炮制,衛生條件已經達標了,不必再用水洗。煎藥時不能在中間數次加水,也不能把藥煎煳了再加水重煎,煎煳的藥物成分遭到了破壞,療效也因此降低。另外有些藥物煎煳以后,產生了其它功效,如荊芥是解表藥,煎煳以后變成了荊芥炭,失去了解表作用,反而會產生止血效能。

      很多人都會在熬藥之前泡一下藥材,中藥藥材是否需要浸泡呢?浸泡中藥飲片應使用涼水,加水量超過藥物表面3~5厘米,浸泡時間需要根據藥材性質而定,葉、莖類藥材為主的組方,可浸泡30分鐘;根、根莖、種子、果實、礦石、化石、貝殼類為主的組方,可浸泡60分鐘。浸泡時間不宜過久,以免引起藥物分解及變質。

      很多患者因工作忙,煎煮服用不方便,選擇將中藥打粉后沖服或裝入膠囊,這么做可能會改變藥效,而且有些藥本身也不適合打粉,以下幾點必須注意:1.動物組織或者動物藥材不適合打粉。2.有毒性的藥材不適合打粉,這類藥打粉后因混合不勻,導致無法準確控制每次服用的量。例如,全蝎具有通絡止痛的功效,煎服需3~6克,而研粉吞服每次只需0.6~1克。

      本文由中國中醫科學院中醫門診部副主任醫師、國家中醫藥管理局中醫文化學后備學科帶頭人、中醫學博士、博士后宋歌進行科學性把關。專家擅長中醫內科、中醫婦科、中醫兒科以及亞健康狀態調理。

      責任編輯: 史娜

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