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      從“借船出海”到“油輪中國造”

      時間: 2019-04-12      來源:     



      從工業用油到塑料瓶、護膚霜等日用品,從飛機、汽車、輪船動力來源到照明、烹飪、取暖和制冷設備……石油制品已深入生活方方面面。

      實際上,人們習慣把未經加工的石油稱為原油。原油從油井中開采出來,小部分通過管路通往煉油廠,大部分依靠油輪運輸到世界各地。曾經,我國因缺少技術、材料無法制造油輪,運油需購買他國的“二手油輪”,對外海運一度處于空白狀態。而今,我國油輪制造業不斷突破他國技術壟斷,于2016年建造出擁有自主知識產權的“瑞豐”號超級油輪,是目前世界上設計最先進、最環保、油耗量最低的超大型油輪。從“借船出海”到“油輪中國造”,有著怎樣曲折的歷程?讓我們追尋歷史腳步,尋找答案↓

      油輪制造業緊隨時代而變

      早期,人們使用木桶、鐵桶裝運植物油、鯨油、原油等,然后裝船運輸。海運中,桶自身的重量和體積不僅會增加運輸成本,還可能因桶的破損導致油料泄漏。因此,迫切需要建造專門的運油船舶——油輪。1886年,德國船舶公司建造的“好運”號,長97米、載重2307噸,貨艙分隔成14個艙,用泵和管道系統連在一起進行原油裝卸,是第一艘具有現代油船特征的散裝油輪。即使在今天,這樣的管道系統仍舊沒有“過時”——現代油輪同樣依靠自身的泵、管道系統和碼頭管道系統相連,完成油料裝卸。“好運”號于1886年7月13日首航,她主要的任務是將美國原油運往歐洲,建成前一年,美國運往歐洲的原油有99%是桶裝。

      1956年,第二次中東戰爭爆發,蘇伊士運河封閉。油輪從波斯灣到歐洲的海上航路必須繞道非洲南端的好望角。好望角長年狂風巨浪,只有大型油輪才能安全通行。不僅如此,大型郵輪運原油的噸位更多,運油單位成本更低。這些因素使各國熱衷于建造大型油輪,并進入“你追我趕”的白熱化時期。英國很快建造了真正的蒸汽機油輪“桑弗里諾”號,長160.7米,載重11929噸,成為當時最大的油輪。隨后,蒸汽機油輪“桑格雷戈里奧”號、“桑杰羅尼莫”號、“桑費爾南多”號不斷刷新萬噸級運油記錄……在這場競賽中,日本一直獨占鰲頭。1966年,載重15萬噸的“東京丸”號超過了當時世界最大的船——客輪“伊麗莎白女王”號。

      隨著蘇伊士運河重新開放,超大型油輪因吃水限制,不再具備適航性,各國大型油輪的制造腳步逐漸放緩。隨后,西方國家改變能源結構,從以石油為主轉向煤炭、核能、水電、液化石油氣和液化天然氣等多元化能源結構,開始大規模修建油氣輸送管道并采取節能措施,原油運輸量大幅降低——超大型油輪逐漸過剩。更重要的是,經多方論證,研究機構認為20萬—32萬噸的油輪更合適,盲目的大型化競賽這才慢慢止步。

      我國油輪成為后起之秀

      世界造船史上,我國曾走在最前列。明朝時鄭和七下西洋的船,是當時世界造船水平最高的遠洋船。19世紀中期,西方列強在侵略我國的同時,也抑制了我國航運業發展,油輪制造更是如此。

      當時,我國進口石油制品多是國外商船運輸。抗日戰爭結束后,民國政府從美國購買4艘二手萬噸級油輪和18艘1500噸級油輪。為運輸原油,1958年,我國從芬蘭購進兩艘5000噸級油輪,后續又仿造該船型,在國內造船廠建造了兩艘。上世紀60年代中后期,大慶、華北、勝利等油田相繼開發,沿海原油運輸量大幅增加,我國專家憑借自主設計建造了第一艘1.5萬噸級油輪“大慶27”號,并于1974、1984年相繼建成2.4萬噸級油輪“大慶61”號和6.5萬噸級油輪“大慶257”號。

      “大慶27”號 油輪

      從模仿他國到自主設計,我國油輪制造技術在一次次試驗中積累經驗、不斷創新。1987年,我國為挪威船東建造了載重11.5萬噸穿梭油輪“蘭希德克納森”號,并于1996年再為其建造15萬噸級油輪,后者是我國當時最大的新一代油輪。隨著“油輪中國造”口碑聲名鵲起,制造訂單如雪花般不斷飛來。2002年8月,我國建造的首艘30萬噸級超大型油輪“伊朗德爾瓦”號油輪正式交付客戶,突破了發達國家長期壟斷的高新技術,并在30萬噸超大型油輪出口領域實現了跨越式發展。從此,我國造船業從國內走向國際,翻開了新的篇章。

      “伊朗德爾瓦”號油輪

      近5年,我國建造的超大型油輪占世界造船份額三分之一以上,造船技術迅速提升,造船完工量、手持船舶訂單量等指標位居世界第一。但與日韓造船企業相比,我國造船企業在生產效率、造船管理、船舶配套設備等方面仍有差距。具體來看,主要有配套裝備仍靠進口,海洋工程裝備國際市場占有率較低,配套的高端自動化導航、儀器儀表等設備仍存技術短板……這些問題亟待造船專家一一解決。

      同時,隨著到達我國港口的超大型油輪日益增多,原油泄漏風險日益突出,給航運安全帶來極大威脅。目前,盡管港口、航道不斷改善,為大型化油輪航行提供了現實可能,以高強度鋼為代表的先進材料大規模使用、助航設備不斷推陳出新……但對于航行安全,起決定因素的永遠是人而不是設備,這考驗著船員、引航員等每一位海事從業者和管理人員。盡管造船強國、航海強國的道路不會一帆風順,但無怨無悔的航海人員志存高遠,肩負期盼,必將揚起風帆,不斷追尋強國之夢。

      延伸閱讀?

      ●○原油泄漏催生雙殼油輪

      隨著油輪噸位擴大和數量增多,原油泄漏風險大大增加,這將帶來難以修復的環境污染問題。日本“辛克萊石油”號油輪曾在巴西水域沉沒,原油全部泄漏;1967年3月18日,長297米的利比亞籍油輪“托雷坎榮”號在英吉利海峽觸礁斷裂,導致11.5萬噸原油泄漏,英法兩國為此蒙受巨大損失;1975年6月,日本籍油輪“昭和丸”在馬六甲海峽海域溢油23.7萬噸……而引發泄油事故的原因是——“單殼油輪”。

      原油污染的海岸線。

      20世紀90年代之前,各國建造的油輪基本為單殼油輪。單殼油輪只有一層殼體,發生碰撞后極易出現原油泄漏,一時間全球航運業談之色變。美國率先于1989年頒布《1990年油污法》,規定油輪必須具有雙層船殼,降低原油泄漏風險。國際海事組織迅速跟隨,于1991年11月通過議案,規定新造油輪必須具有雙殼或中層水平中隔艙構造。

      相比于單殼油輪,雙殼結構的油輪更為安全。雙殼油輪艙底和兩舷有連續的雙層殼體,除了可用來承載水壓外,還可防止由于擱淺、碰撞帶來的底部或邊殼破損,如同給油輪上了一層“保險”。1992年,丹麥建造了世界上第一艘、同時也是最大的雙殼超大型油輪,內層鋼板以內是貨艙,外層鋼板以外是海水,在兩層鋼板中間有1.5—2米的空隙,用作發生碰撞時的緩沖區,可減少油污泄漏發生幾率。1994年以后,雙殼油輪制造業迅速發展,并逐漸取代單殼油輪。2005年,國際海事組織發布消息,全球將逐步禁止使用單殼油輪運輸原油,并規定單殼油輪必須于2010年停止運營。

      責任編輯: 史娜

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