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      地下煤火有危害?新技術實現“變害為寶”

      時間 2018-04-02     

      ????據新華網報道,1月17日,中國礦業大學地下煤火研究團隊與中國、美國、澳大利亞、德國等多個研究機構與院校合作,攻克了將煤田火區熱能轉變為電能等清潔能源的關鍵技術。這有助于將每年數億噸白白燒毀的地下煤炭資源重新利用。那么,什么是地下煤火?它是否具有危害?又要如何借助黑科技將其熱能轉化為電能的?

      ???

      ?

      ?新疆烏尊布拉克火區現場(圖片來源:《北京日報》)

      ????什么是地下煤火?據《新華日報》報道,地下煤火是一種煤田普遍存在的現象,是煤礦層由人為因素或自燃形成的煤田火和礦井火。據中國礦業大學研究統計,我國僅內蒙古、寧夏和新疆等地,煤田火區燃燒面積超720平方公里。

      ????那么,這些被燒毀的地下煤火是否具有危害呢?如果有,它的危害有多大?地下煤火確實具有兩方面的危害,據《北京日報》報道,一方面是破壞生態環境。地下煤炭燃燒,將數以萬噸的煙灰、有害氣體排放到空氣中。據統計,每年僅地下煤火產生的二氧化碳就占世界排放量1/10;其產生的有害化學物質,如硫化物和PM2.5等,污染空氣、土地和水源,嚴重危及人類健康。煤火產生的地表高溫將破壞土壤生態,導致植被枯萎死亡,加劇水土流失和沙漠化,甚至引發山林火災。

      ????另一方面則是危害采礦安全。《北京日報》介紹,煤火燃燒形成的塌陷和燒空區,嚴重影響原煤的開采進程與采礦安全,造成資源的阻滯甚至引發礦難。同時,會導致潛在的地質災害發生。淺部煤層和煤柱等燃燒后形成燒空區,導致地面出現燃燒裂隙、塌陷坑等。

      ????雖說煤火燃燒可能造成巨大災難,但是它所產生的熱能也是巨大的,該如何利用這種能量呢?據《科技日報》報道,2016年起,中國礦業大學周福寶教授提出了地下煤火熱能利用新理念,研發了分布式煤田火區熱能提取溫差發電新技術,利用熱電材料將地下煤火的熱能直接轉換為清潔電能。

      ????那么,具體是如何進行操作呢?《科技日報》介紹,這個設備主要由熱量提取系統和溫差發電系統兩部分組成;熱量提取系統,由放入鉆孔中的鋁管和鋁管中導熱介質組成;溫差發電系統,采用溫差發電的形式,利用硅油提取上來的熱量在發電片的熱端產生高溫并與和散熱水箱接觸的冷端形成溫差,從而達到發電的目的。該技術在熱電轉換過程中具備無額外的能源輸入、無污染、無噪音、設備體積小、安全可靠等優點。目前,已經完成了第四代產品的研發,煤火區單孔最高發電功率達到了2105瓦,提取火區熱能181.6千瓦。(張茜)

      ????本文由中國科學傳播研究所副研究員卜勇進行科學性把關,專家目前主要研究領域為健康、環保、水利、節能、氣象、人工智能、腦科學與認知科學等。來源:科普中國-科技讓生活更美好

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