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      “天宮一號”失控撞地? 航天專家:不會危害地面

      時間 2018-01-09     

      ????最近,部分外媒將天宮一號目標飛行器當作炒作目標,稱其已經失控并將撞向地球,對地面環境及安全造成威脅。這一論調并非首次出現。

      ????中國航天科技集團五院空間實驗室系統總設計師朱樅鵬對此予以否認。朱樅鵬日前對科技日報記者表示,我國一直在監控天宮一號,預計在今年上半年讓它墜落。其墜入大氣層后就會燒毀,剩余殘骸將落入指定海域,不會危害地面。

      ????實際上,天宮一號失控的說法毫無依據,中國載人航天工程辦公室至今仍定期發布其軌道狀態。最近一期公告顯示,2017年12月17日至24日,天宮一號運行在平均高度約286.5公里的軌道上(近地點高度約272.6公里、遠地點高度約300.4公里、傾角約42.85度),姿態穩定,形態未發生異常。

      ????天宮一號是我國首個目標飛行器,于2011年9月29日發射升空,曾先后與神舟八號、九號、十號飛船交會對接。2016年3月16日,天宮一號全面完成使命,正式終止數據服務。

      ????航天專家龐之浩向科技日報記者介紹,運行在近地軌道的大型航天器退役后,國際通行的做法是讓其受控墜落到南太平洋一處遠離大陸的深海區,那里被稱為“航天器墳場”。俄羅斯的和平號空間站、進步號系列飛船,美國的康普頓伽馬射線望遠鏡等都落在那兒。

      ????讓大型航天器受控墜落是門技術活,與返回式衛星或飛船再入大氣有同有異。對此我國已有豐富經驗。

      ????記者了解到,除了多次控制神舟飛船和返回式衛星精準返回,2014年11月1日,我國探月工程三期再入返回飛行試驗器以第二宇宙速度從月球軌道返回,通過在大氣層表面“打水漂”的方式減速,最終落在內蒙古預定位置。在受控墜落方面,我國于2009年遠隔40萬公里,控制嫦娥一號衛星撞擊月球“豐富海”地區。2017年9月,我國又控制天舟一號飛船離軌,經過兩次制動進入大氣層燒毀,殘骸墜入“航天器墳場”。

      ????龐之浩介紹,受控墜落時,首先要在合適的位置、角度、姿態下,向航天器發出制動指令,讓其產生適當的制動力,以離開當前軌道,進入墜向落區的軌道。各方面都需要精心計算。2001年,“身患重病”的和平號空間站在進步號飛船的協助下離軌墜落,成為國際經典案例。如果以天宮一號為例,受控墜落時則先要調個頭,變成“倒退”狀態,讓原本朝后的推進器向前點火,通過反推實現制動離軌。

      ????進入大氣層后,地面還需要對航天器的姿態進行控制。龐之浩說,與返回式飛船不同的是,受控墜落航天器要保持阻力最大的姿態,以盡量在大氣層中燃燒。記者了解到,天宮一號重約8.5噸,與20噸級的和平號空間站、“禮炮”系列空間站等相比,體量小很多,只要燃燒充分,不會留下太多殘骸。

      ????歷史上也發生過不成功的航天器受控墜落案例。1973年,美國發射了由5部分組成,重約80噸的“天空實驗室”,接待了3批航天員,但一年后就將它關閉了。美國國家航空航天局(NASA)原計劃用航天飛機為其加注燃料,然而受太陽影響,大氣密度超出預期,它沒能等到1981年才發射的航天飛機。1979年7月11日,地面向天空實驗室發出指令,讓它飛過北美大陸人口稠密地區上空后返回地球。最終天空實驗室化成無數碎片,散落在南印度洋和澳大利亞西部地區,損壞了一間房屋。數據顯示,多年來共有約1.5萬噸太空物體重返大氣層,但從未造成人員傷亡。(記者 付毅飛)

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